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The effect of levels of processing on the retention of words

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Ištrauka

This experimental study investigates how the retention of words depends on the levels those words were processed of among Vilnius lyceum youth. The hypothesis made was that the best retention should be after semantic processing of a word, the least – after structural and the medium – after phonemic. In the first part of the experiment, 20 participants were asked 30 questions about 30 words (10 in each of the analysis groups: structural, phonemic, and semantic). In the second part, participants were asked to recall as many words (out of those 30) as they could. The results proved the hypothesis as the best retention (4.0 words recalled out of 10) was in fact a result of the semantic, or the deepest, analysis of a word. In case of phonemic analysis, 2.4 words out of 10 were recalled and in the case of structural – only 1.3 out of 10. These results are coherent with the previous study named “Depth of Processing and the Retention of Words in Episodic Memory”, which was carried out by Fergus I. M. Craik and Endel Tulving.
Method: Design 5
Method: Participants 5
Method: Materials 6
Method: Procedure 6
Results 7
Discussion 8
References 9
Appendix A: Briefing notes 10
Appendix B: Consent statement 11
Appendix C: Debriefing notes 12
Appendix D: Words and questions used in the experiment 13
Appendix E: Table for answers 14
Appendix F: Chart 2 representing frequency against numbers of words recalled 15
Appendix G: Raw data and calculations 16
Appendix H: Description of divided responsibilities within a group 17
Introduction
The experiment I have chosen to replicate, named “Depth of Processing and the Retention of Words in Episodic Memory”, was carried out by Fergus I. M. Craik and Endel Tulving in 1975. The aim of this experiment was to check the theory proposed by Craik and Lockhart in 1972, which stated that memory traits depend proportionally on...

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